Madonna of the Palafrenieri

The Madonna and Child with St. Anne (Dei Palafrenieri) is one of Caravaggio’s most famous mature religious works, painted in 1605-1606.


The artwork was executed for the altar of the Archconfraternity of the Papal Grooms (Arciconfraternita di Sant’Anna de Parafrenieri) in Saint Peter’s Basilica. Moreover, it was exhibited in the parish church for the Vatican, Sant’Anna dei Palafrenieri, before its removal, most probably because of its orthodox portrayal of the Virgin.

After Cardinal Scipione Borghese bought it, the artwork still hangs in the Galleria Borghese among five other Caravaggio paintings: Boy with a Basket of Fruit, David with the head of Goliath, Young Sick Bacchus, Saint Jerome Writing, and St John the Baptist in the Desert.

The vicissitudes of the painting are documented from the receipt for payment to the artist on 8 April 1606, which indicates that the painting was finished by this date. However, the reason for the refusal of the Congregazione della Fabbrica to accept the artwork is not apparent yet. One of the assumptions is that the painting was considered to lack the decorum deemed to be indispensable for its display in a place that was both public and holy.


The painting’s size is 292 x 211 cm; the confraternity of the Palafrenieri commissioned it. The artist presented a theological concept of great importance in significantly humanized terms, depicting the figure of St. Anne, the personification of divine grace, as passive detachment. For the Virgin, Caravaggio used the same model as the one who had posed for the Madonna di Loreto (or dei Pellegrini) in the church of Sant’Agostino in Rome.

Undoubtedly, it is an atypical depiction of the Virgin for its time and probably has been shocking to some contemporary viewers. The Virgin, with the help of her son, whom she holds, tramples a snake, a symbol of evil or original sin. Saint Anne, whose painting is meant to be honored, is an old, wrinkled grandmother who witnesses this event. Shaky halos crown the rack; the snake bounces off the halo. Mary and Jesus barefoot; Jesus is a completely naked, uncircumcised child. Everything else is a shadow, and the figures become monumental in the light.

Suppose this picture was intended in honor of the grandmother of Christ. In that case, it is unclear how the ungrateful image of her wrinkled appearance in this painting would be perceived as respectful or iconic. According to Bellory, further shock should have come from the revealing bodice of the Virgin Mary. Finally, it can be assumed that the parallel diagonals of the phallus and the feet of Jesus suggest that both are fighting with the snake, and one is metaphorically equal.

Working Method

The recent conservation work has revealed the use of incision on the canvas, a feature of Caravaggio’s working methods. Initially, the Virgin’s halo was at the same level as that of Saint Anne, the patron of the confraternity of the Palafrenieri, who is watching the scene. Moreover, the cleaning influenced the brightness of the colors in the artwork, particularly on the snake’s body, where there are reflections of the light and the beam of light from above.

Borghese Gallery in Rome,
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Author: Caravaggio


Caravaggio (1571-1610), or Michelangelo Merisi, was an Italian painter considered one of the leading influencers of modern painting. His artworks combine a realistic perception of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a developmental impact on Baroque painting. Caravaggio utilized close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro, known as tenebrism. In addition, he made the method of a dominant stylistic element, obscuring shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light.

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